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Nepal

Country
Nepal
State
Nepal (General)
City
Achham
Type of Location
Hill Station
About Location

Nepal is a country of highly diverse and rich geography, culture, and religions. The mountainous north has eight of the world's ten highest mountains, including the highest, Sagarmatha, known in English as Mount Everest. The fertile and humid south is heavily urbanized. It contains over 240 peaks more than 20,000 ft (6,096 metres) above sea level.

 

By some measures, Hinduism is practised by a larger majority of people in Nepal than in any other nation. Buddhism, though a minority faith in the country, is linked historically with Nepal as the birthplace of Siddhartha Gautama, who as the Buddha Gautama gave birth to the Buddhist tradition.

A monarchy throughout most of its history, Nepal was ruled by the Shah dynasty of kings from 1768, when Prithvi Narayan Shah unified its many small kingdoms. However, a decade-long People's Revolution by the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) along with several weeks of mass protests by all major political parties of Nepal in 2006, culminated in a peace accord and the ensuing elections for the constituent assembly voted overwhelmingly in favor of the abdication of the last Nepali monarch Gyanendra Shah and the establishment of a federal democratic republic in May 28, 2008.[9] The first President of Nepal, Ram Baran Yadav, was sworn in on 23 July 2008.



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How to Reach

Getting to Nepal           

By Air
The Tribhuvan airport in Kathmandu is Nepal’s only international airport. The important airlines that serve Kathmandu are Indian Airlines, Thai International, Bangladesh Biman, China Southwest Airlines, Druk Air, Qatar Airways, PIA- Pakistan Airlines, Gulf Air, Sahara Ailrlines, Jet Air, and Cosmic Air.

The National Carrier - Royal Nepal Airlines Corporation (RNAC) operates two flights per week from London and one from Paris via Dubai. Contact its agency in London for cheap excursion fares. All of RNAC's European flights operate via Frankfurt.
Lufthansa also operates direct Frankfurt-Kathmandu flights with three flights weekly throughout the year. A return ticket costs around US$825. German bucket shops can produce special deals on these. Pakistan International, Bangladesh Biman and Aeroflot all have a one- airline service from Europe to Kathmandu, though they require a connection in Karachi or Dhaka or Moscow. From Germany, look at charter flights; LTU operates a weekly flight from Germany to Kathmandu during winter.

Via Asia
You could travel to Kathmandu via Bangkok, Hong Kong and Singapore. There are daily flights to Kaathmandu from bankgkok.

If in India, you can fly to Nepal from Delhi, Mumbai, Calcutta, Banglore and Varanasi. The one
There is the spectacular flight from Lhasa to Kathmandu on Saturdays, Tuesdays and Thrusdays operated by China Southwest Airlines. You can also fly Druk Air from Paro in Bhutan, or take a flight from Dhaka, Bangladesh.

From Europe and Middle East
Qatar Airways and Gulf Air operates daily flights to Kathmandu from Doha and Dubai.
Pakistan International, Bangladesh Biman and Aeroflot have one-airline service from Europe to Kathmandu.The other option are the charter companies, Austrin Airways has a direct flight from Vienna to Kathmandu and Martin Air operates direct flight to Kathmandu from Aamsterdam.

From North America
You could fly to Nepal via India or alternatively via Bangkok or Hong Kong. RNAC’s Osaka flight makes good connections with North American flights.

From Australia and New Zealand
Look for routes via Singapore, Hong Kong or Bangkok.

By Land
There are just eight entry points into Nepal by land open to foreigners, from which six are from India and two from Tibet.

Via India
The crossing points from India include Mahendranagar, Dhangadhi and Nepalgunj in the west, Sunali, Birganj and Kakarbhitta in the east. Make sure to book your tickets through a reputed agency to avoid getting duped. Also bear in mind that everyone has to change buses at the border whether they book a through ticket or not, and that despite claims to the contrary, there are no tourist buses on either side of the border. You can board direct buses to the Nepal border from Delhi, Varanasi, Calcutta, Patna and Darjeeling. From the border, you can board Nepali buses to Kathmandu.

Via Tibet
You can cross the border into Nepal from Tibet via Kodari.

Leaving Nepal
Always, but always, reconfirm reservations, or chances are the airlines will cancel them. Take time before your trek or river rafting tour to reconfirm your flight out of Nepal.

Key places to visit
Kathmandu , PATAN , KIRTIPUR , Mt.Everest


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Places to Visit

Kathmandu           
The Kathmandu Valley is noted in some history books for some archaeological evidence dated from 900 BC. The Buddha is also to have spent some time in what is Patan today, during 6 th Century BC. In the 3 rd Century BC, the Indian emperor, Ashoka, who is from the Mauryan Dynasty, has built four ‘Stupas’ or pillars around Patan.

After these events, the following dynasties have ruled the Kathmandu Valley: the Kirat dynasty; the Licchavi dynasty from 464 AD; the Malla dynasty between the 12 and 17 th centuries; Prithvi Narayan Shah invaded Nepal and his dynasty started to rule it from 1758- the birth of modern Nepal.

During the Anglo-Nepalese war (1815-16), parts of Nepal (e.g, Sikkim) were annexed by the British East India Company in return for Nepal to have complete autonomy of its own.
From 1846, Jung Bahadur came to power and founded the Rana dynasty, which came to be pro-British and supported Britain during the 1857 Sepoy Mutiny in India, and the two world wars. In 1923, the UK and Nepal signed a friendship agreement, in which the UK recognised Nepal as an independent nation.

PATAN           

Lalitpur, city in Nepal, on the Baghmati River, in the Kathmandu Valley, just south of Kathmandu. Lalitpur is the administrative center of Lalitpur District. The area surrounding the city produces barley, wheat, millet, oats, corn, rice, potatoes, and vegetables. The city is known for its metalwork, brassware, woven textiles, matches, and handicrafts; an industrial area was established in the 1960s.

The site of Lalitpur is very old, having parts of ancient walls and Hindu temples dating from the 3rd century BC and Buddhist temples of the 15th and 16th centuries. Founded about AD650, Lalitpur was the capital of the traditional first king of Nepal. During the Middle Ages the area was alternately an independent Newar kingdom or tributary to Kathmandu or Bhaktapur, until the Shah dynasty conquered it in 1768. The city was formerly known as Patan; the present Sanskrit name is now in official use. Population (1991) 117,203.


KIRTIPUR           
The small town of Kirtipur is on a hill, 5km southwest of Kathmandu. In the past there were 12 gates of the town. Parts of the old city wall still remain. The main industry in town is the Kirtipur Cottage Industry Centre and most of the residents are either weavers or farmers. There are some great views of Kathmandu and the mountains behind it. Kirtipur is on two hills and the saddle between the hills. With its easily defendable hilltop location, when Prithvi Narayan Shah attacked the valley in 1768, Kirtipur was the first place to be attacked. After a tough siege, the town was taken.

The king being angry at the resistance order that all the male residents of the town have their lips and nose cut off, but those who could play wind instruments were spared. With its easily defendable hilltop location, when Prithvi Narayan Shah attacked the valley in 1768, Kirtipur was the first place to be attacked. After a tough siege, the town was taken. The king being angry at the resistance order that all the male residents of the town have their lips and nose cut off, but those who could play wind instruments were spared.It is said that news of this punishment spread across the valley and resistant was weakened else where across the valley.

Tribhuvan University, the University of Nepal, has the best library in Nepal. It is at the bottom of the hill that the town is on
 
Temples
At the bottom of the two hills, where they meet is the three-tiered Bagh Bhairab Temple, which is holy to both Hindus and Buddhists. The main deity of the temple is Bhairab, in the form of a tiger. There is a temple torana to the left of the entrance with Vishnu riding Garuda. Bhairab in the middle of Ganesh and Kumar is below them. The temple is covered with swords and shields that belong to the troop of Kirtipur, who were defeat by the army of King Prithvi Narayan Shah. Sacrifices are made here on Tuesday and Saturday mornings.

The triple-roofed Uma Maheshwar Temple, or Hindu Kvat, is gotten by climbing the stone stairway by the saddle. On either side of the beginning of the stairway is a stone elephant with spikes on them. The main deities in this temple are standing Siva and Parvati. To the left of the main deities is the form of Siva with Parvati leaning against him seductively. From the temple there are good views of the surrounding area. The temple was originally built in 1673 and had four roofs. It was damaged in the earthquake of 1934 and was restored.

The Chilanchu Vihara is on top of the southern hill. It has a central stupa and four stupas around it. It has statues and bells.

Travel
Many buses come here from the Kathmandu City bus stand (45 minutes, Rs 6). The bus stops at the university and from there you walk up the hill to the town. It is more comfortable to get here by taxi from Kathmandu (Rs 200).

By mountain bike it takes about 1½ hours to get to Kirtipur from Kathmandu. It is a long steep ride up the hill to here. You take the Ring Road Bridge across the Bagmati River and then take the first left onto the Dakshinkali road. After around 1km past the bridge you turn right onto the road that has two brick gatehouses on either side of the road. You go about 1km up the hill and then take the left fork where the minibuses stop near the university.

To return from Kirtipur, you can go to village of Chobar and then to Chobar Gorge and then ride to Patan. From the Chilanchu Vihara, at the southeast end of Kirtipur, you ride down the hill by the mound called Mazadega (built as a foundation of the stupa). At the bottom of the hill you take the Pharping Road and then get on the trail to Chobar, a little past the Thai temple. It is easy to see Chobar, because it is easily seen on a hill to the southeast. You can also take a thin footpath up the hill to the village of Chobar, where there is the Adinath Lokeshwar Temple. You then keep riding down the hill towards the river, towards the cement works besides the river. The Chobar Gorge and Jal Binayak Temple are near the cement works.

From the trail above you can also take a side trip to Panga, which has some temple, but nothing of particular interest. From Panga, you go to the small village of Nagaon.

Major Tourism Activities

Mountain Climbing
The 800 km stretch of the Nepal Himalayan is the greatest in the world with eight peaks that rise above 8,000m including the highest in the world, Mt. Everest. Ever since the country opened its peaks to climbers in 1994, the Nepal Himalayan has become a great theatre of mountaineering activity and the drama of success and failure have provided impetus to thousands of men and women to meet the ultimate challenge. The Nepal Himalayan has been an attraction to many people, be they saints, philosophers, researchers or adventures.

Trekking
The best way to experience Nepal’s unbeatable combination of natural beauty and culture riches is to walk through them. One can walk along the beaten trails or virgin tracks. Either way you are in for an experience for a lifetime. Along with forests of rhododendron, isolated hamlets, and small mountain villages, birds, animals, temple, monasteries and breathtaking landscapes, you will also encounter friendly people of different cultures offering a fascinating glimpse of traditional rural life.

Bird Watching
Nepal is a paradise for bird lovers with over 646 species (almost 8% of the world total) of birds, and among them almost 500 hundred species are found in Kathmandu Valley alone. The most popular bird watching spots in Kathmandu are Phulchoki, Godavari, Nagarjun, Bagmati river, Taudaha and so on. Get your binoculars and look forward to a rewarding experience.

Mountain Flight
Only awe-stricken silence can come close to matching the experience of going on a mountain flight to encounter the tallest mountains on earth. Mountain flights offer the closest possible aerial views of Mt. Everest, Kanchenjunga and the Tibetan Plateau. Mountain flights appeal to all category of travelers and have become a popular tourist attraction of Nepal. For those who are restricted by time or other considerations from going for a trek, these flights offer a panoramic view of the Himalayan in just one hour.

Rock Climbing
For all those cliffhangers out there, Kathmandu offers a roster of stone walls that make for an experience of a lifetime. Now of late, Rock climbing has become a popular sport in Kathmandu, which offers some really terrific places for rock climbing. Nagarjun, Balaju, Shivapuri and Budhanil Kantha are some of the places where you can try this sport.

Rafting/Kayaking/Canyoning
Rafting is one of the best ways to explore the typical cross section of natural as well as ethno-cultural heritage of the country. There are numerous rivers in Nepal which offer excellent rafting or canoeing experience. You can glide on calm jade waters with munificent scenery all about or rush through roaring white rapids, in the care of expert river-men employed by government authorized agencies. One can opt for day of river running or more. So far, the government has opened sections of 10 rivers for commercial rafting. The Trisuli river ( Grade 3+) is one of the most popular of Nepal’s raftable rivers. The Kali Gandaki (5-5+) winds through remote canyons and deep gorges for five days of intense rapids. The Bhote Koshi (4-5) is 26km of continuous white water and the raging Marshyanghi is four days of uninterrupted white water. The Karnali river (4-5) provides some of the most challenging rapids in the world. The Sun Koshi (4-5), 27km, requiring 8-10 days to complete, is a big and challenging river. Adventurers are provided with world-class services by rafting agents. Agencies here provide life jackets, camping and the standard rafting paraphernalia needed by world-class rafting. An extremely popular sport in Europe, cannoning is now available in Nepal. Cannoning gives you the freedom to explore some of the most ruggedly beautiful, yet forbidden places in the world.

Hot Air Ballooning
Hot air ballooning is very popular with tourists for it affords the most spectacular bird’s-eye view of the Kathmandu valley and the Himalayan ranges towering in the background. On a clear day it’s a superb way to view the Himalayan (from over 6000m up), and the view of the valley is equally breathtaking.

Bungy Jumping
The ultimate thrill of a bungy jump can now be experienced in Nepal at one of the best sites that this sport can boast of anywhere in the world. Nepal’s first bungy jumping site is situated 160m. Over the Bhote Koshi river, inviting you to experience the ultimate adrenaline rush in the surroundings of this amazing place. The jump, at 160m., is staffed and operated by some of the most experienced jumpmasters in the business.

Paragliding
Paragliding in Nepal can be a truly wonderful and fulfilling experience for the adventure seeking. A trip will take you over some of the best scenery on earth, as you share airspace with Himalayan griffins vultures, eagles, kites and float over villages, monasteries, temples, lakes and jungle, with a fantastic view of the majestic Himalayas.

Ultralight Aircraft
Ultralight aircraft take off from Pokhara and offer spectacular views of the lakes, mountains and villages. This is an ideal way to see life from a new perspective. The choice of Pokhara Valley for ultra-light aircraft is appropriate chiefly because of the proximity of the mountains, and the scenic lakes. For those who wished they could fly birds when growing up, this flight is a must. It might be lonely at the top, but this flight is a must. It might be lonely at the top, but the spectacular view from up high certainly makes it all worth it. Flights are from the Pokhara airport beginning September through June. The flights take place from sunrise to 11 a.m. and from 3 p.m. to sunset every day during these months.

Mountain Biking
The best way to explore the Kathmandu Valley is on a mountain bike. Nepal’s diverse terrain is a mountain biker’s dream adventure comes true. Mountain biking offers an environmentally sound way of exploring this magnificent country, its landscape and living heritage. There are plenty of dirty roads and trails in Nepal to meet every mountain biker’s wildest fantasy. Mountain biking is specially recommended if you wish to explore urban centers of Nepal such as Pokhara and Kathmandu as well as the countryside. Adventurous souls may plan extended trips to such exotic locals as Namche Bazaar, and western Nepal. You could even do the entire length of Nepal across the plains. Mountain bikes are available for rent by the day or longer in many of the bicycle rental outlets in Nepal and around the city.

Jungle Safari
National Parks located specially in the Terai region in Nepal attract visitors from all over the world. A visit to these parks involves game- stalking by a variety of means-foot, dugout canoe, jeep, and elephant back. One is bound to sight a one – horned rhino or two at every elephant safari. Besides the rhinos, wild boars, samburs, spotted deer, sloth bear, four-horned antelope are also usually seen. A Royal Bengal tiger may surprise you by his majestic appearance.

 

SAGARMATHA'S HEIGHT

The exact date of my birth is unknown to me, but people say that my emergence on the earth was pretty recent. It is believed that I am younger than all other Himalayas, mountains and hills of this world. Nowadays, the son is taller than the father, the younger brother taller than the elder, in short the young are taller in height than their elders are. Maybe that is the reason why I am the tallest mountain in
    Sagarmatha - Mt.Everest
Sagarmatha- Mt.Everest

the world. The Himalayas, which are around 2,400 kms in length and 150 - 400 kms in width, are also mentioned in the ancient religious texts and it is believed that Lord Shiva's celestial abode is located somewhere on the Himalayas. Even now a lot of people are curious about me and have made many historical, geographical, and scientific researches about me. Among the 25 summits in the world which are over 8,000 m, 5 fall in Pakistan, 1 falls in China, and 1 in Bhutan. The rest are all situated in Nepal and one-third of all Himalayan ranges also fall within Nepal's boundaries. Among all the summits of Nepal, I am the most favored one. The reason for this is that if someone succeeds to reach me they will be forever remembered. If they find out something new about me they will achieve prominence, and their name will be written in the Hall of Glory .For all this, people even put their lives at risk and try to reach me. And since hundreds of years, mankind has competed amongst themselves to measure my height.

Sagarmatha - Mt.Everest
Sagarmatha- Mt.Everest
    

Although the task of measuring mountain summits had been going on for a long time, my first complete assessment along with that of my fellow friends was only done in 1850 from India. Due to their ignorance of my local name, I was named XV during this

process and it was only after later evaluations that people were to know me as the tallest mountain in the world. For a long time afterwards, no one seemed to care about me. Even the few who tried to measure me did not gain anything worthwhile. As soon as people tried to scale me the number of persons who wanted to know more about me grew fantastically. Isn't it amazing? So many people from different places have tried to estimate my height through so many methods but they are yet to be successful and the task of measurement still continues. I have no idea how many times and till when this saga will continue, and I think even the wise and all-knowing Lord Shiva residing on my crest does not know the answer to this.

The British, who infiltrated India in the name of the East India Company and established their rule out there, became increasingly attracted to the Himalayan ranges lying in the northern part of their colony and started to show their mounting interest in us. Maybe because of this, the British announced an official war on Nepal on
    Sagarmatha Base Camp
Sagarmatha Base Camp

November 1, 1824 which ended on March 4, 1826 and which resulted in the loss of 2341 square mile territory of Nepal as recorded in the " SUGAULI TREATY". It was only nature of the British to be fascinated by us, surrounded as they were by water on all sides. In the beginning they were not aware of my existence, as they believed I was hidden from their view. But, they did not spare my fellow friends and tried unsuccessfully to measure their height through the 'Horizontal Distance' and 'Vertical Angle' .In 1810, Col. Crawford came to Nepal and tried to measure the Himalayan summits through his own methods. He came to the conclusion that the height of the Himalayan summits varies according to the different hours of the day. He also gave a statement on this. Likewise, in 1812, Captain Webb measured the height of Mt. Gongotri and Mt. Banderpunj as 25,000 ft. and 22,800 ft. respectively. But due to incorrect measurement of the sea level, a miscalculation of 4,000 ft. and 1,100 ft. took place.

View of Sagarmatha from Tibet
View of Sagarmatha from Tibet
    

It was many years after 1767 (when the Survey of India was born) that in order to make the maps of India the 'Great Trigonometrical Survey of India base points' was created. In 1823, Sir George Everest was

appointed to measure all the Himalayan summits falling within the Indian sub-continent. He started his survey by creating triangulation lines to go through all the summits. In 1830, he was appointed the Survey General. Even after Everest left India in 1843, his project continued. The EVEREST SPHEROID, which is a necessity when making maps of this area was also, invented by him. His work was carried on by his successor Sir Andrew Waugh, who wrote in a letter that the tallest Himalayan peaks had been seen somewhere in the northern region of Nepal and that it was hoped to prove a challenge to Geology (which was proved true later on). "

Even though we were not allowed to enter Nepal, we tried to estimate the Himalayan ranges from South Bihar, which is only 160 kms away from the border, by climbing 20-30 ft. tall towers. In the early morning we calculated the horizontal distance and at around 8 a.m. - 10 a.m. the vertical angle was observed". In this way, the British, who were not allowed to enter Nepal and who could only barely distinguish our peaks had a tough time completing their survey. According to the surveyors, there was a difference of about 500 ft in all of our measurements. This was due to the distance and the difference in the daily refraction. Because of this, Sir Waugh with the help of his main assistant Radha Nath Sinkhdar tried to improve the atmospheric refraction through various     The Survey of 1849-50
The Survey of 1849-50

researches. Among the summits, which were measured in 1850, Nandadevi was declared the highest peak with the height of 25,650 ft., but later on Dhaulagiri won the coveted title with a height of 26,800 ft. Some years later, claims were made that Mt. Kanchunjunga, observed from Darjeeling, was the tallest among all. No one even imagined that I could be the tallest mountain in the world.

In reality, J.W. Armstrong had already measured me in 1847 and even named me "V". But he had not completed my evaluation. If he had done so, my height would have been 28,800 ft. Between 1849-1850, J.O.Nicholson tried to estimate me by using 24'' Thodolite machines from a distance of 175- 190 kms, situated on six different places. He named me "H". But after reaching the main station my former name "XV" was used. In this way, a lot of measurements had been taken of me and my friends, but to complete a total evaluation would involve a lot of time and effort, and it was only natural to expect numerous discussions and debates. All the debates subsided with the release of Radhanath's evaluation. In this evaluation, I was declared as the tallest peak in the world. After improving the refraction, he evaluated my height at 29,000 ft. Finally, in 1852, my height was made public and as no one knew my local name, I was christened "MOUNT EVEREST" after the great geologist and surveyor George Everest.Thereafter, I became famous as Mt. Everest- the tallest mountain in the world. The people of Nepal called me SAGARMATHA (meaning the highest point of the earth or the body) and the people of the North gave me the name of KABBULANGMA. Pakistan's Mt. K2 with a height of 28,225 ft was adjudged the second tallest and eastern Nepal's Mt. Kanchenjunga with a height of 28,145 ft was declared as the third Highest Mountain of the world.

Mount Dhaulagiri
Mount Dhaulagiri
    

After the first survey to estimate my height, people got busy with the task of improving the atmospheric refraction; although a lot of politics went on to measure my height no fruitful study was done. During 1880-83 and 1902, a survey was done from six different places of Darjeeling to measure the vertical angle, but nothing was gained from this project.

In 1905, Sir Burrad started a survey to estimate the heights of a few Himalayan Summits. He measured the Vertical Angle from Dehradun by using new and improved refraction methods and fixed my height as 29,141 ft. Even on this a few shortcomings were found on the GEOID and VERTICAL DEFLECTION as necessary data had not been available on them. Since 1910, Hunter, a team advisor of 'Survey of India', had started a detailed study and research on atmospheric refraction. In 1913, Hunter, the new Survey General, published an article describing a source through which atmospheric refraction could be improved. In 1928, he again published a table on atmospheric refraction improvement. Similarly, he had also done praise worthy work on ground surveys like creating methods like the H.S.V etc. Even Hunter did not leave the task of finding my new height alone. Keeping all the disadvantages and difficulties in mind, he fixed my height at 29,080 ft. Later on, geologist Bomford also acknowledged this. But people still debated on the absence of complete data on the Geoid and Deflection of Vertical. In other words, people never tired of debating on my height. In 1940, the British team, which came to Nepal in order to perform a survey on the 'Koshi Barrage Plan' also, started a venture to measure my height. B.L.Gulatee, a director of the G & R branch of the Survey of India, played a vital role in this. In order to get a more accurate and clear Geoid and Deflection of Vertical, he performed a number of additional tasks such as atmospheric survey, level survey from nearby places such as - Diwanganj, Chatara, Mayam, Rauje, Namchhe Bazaar etc. and thus, completed a survey on me.

In 1952-1953 an accurate Vertical Angle was calculated from 8 mountain peaks, which were at a distance of 47 kms to 76 kms from me and whose height ranged from 8,670 ft. to 14,760 ft. According to this last evaluation my height was recorded at 29,028 ft. This included the depth of the snow that was covering me. Mr. Gulatee added in his presentation that all other surveys done on me previously were good and the height given to me was not exactly wrong, but that surveys done later were always better and more correct than the earlier ones. In this survey mistakes had been reduced, as the atmospheric
    The 1952-54 Survey
The 1952-54 Survey

refraction used had been more correct. Measurements had been taken from other tall peaks and from a closer range. Even the final evaluation had been done with a lot of care. Similarly, a more accurate Geoid and Deflection of Vertical had been used. Because of all these reasons, this important survey was released only in 1954. It had been only a few weeks back that the first human feet had tread on my head.

Himalayan Region
Himalayan Region
    

Oh! I got so engrossed telling you about the projects, which measured me from the north, that I completely forgot about all the southern expeditions. In 1949, Leonard Cleark made a claim that my neighbour Mt. Aanchimakbun was 193 m. taller than I was. America's Washburn wanted to verify this claim, but due to China's internal war he was unable to

do so. There was no way of reaching me through independent Tibet. In 1966, when China had already occupied Tibet, a Chinese team headed by Wang Wangchuk undertook the task of estimating my height as well as that of Mt. Aanchimakbun. My height was found out to be 8,848 m and they started to call me Chomolungma.

But the height of Mt. Aanchimakyun was estimated at 6,282m. only. Furthermore, a nearby Mt. Aanchimakbun was recorded to be at 6,268m. The Chinese team deducted that these two mountains must be Sister Mountains and that Leonard Cleark had most probably measured the mountain measuring 6,268 m. i.e. Mt. Aanchimakbun. There were a lot of mistakes even in this measurement. Anyway, people's curiosity just grew.

In 1955, a British expedition tried to scale me. But they relinquished their ascension when they were only 1,000m. away from my summit. After the Chinese occupation of Tibet in 1960, a Chinese team successfully ascended me from my north face. Their desire to measure my height from the north continually increased. Accordingly, they thought up a very extensive plan. There were two teams involved in this survey- a research team and an expedition team.

They started their survey in 1973. The correct spit level from the Yellow Sea was brought to the nearest summit i.e. only 13.6 km away from me, by their National Level Bench Mark and for the other summits trigonometrical methods were used to assess the height. Similarly, for the Planemetric Control, second-degree triangulation chains were made
    The 1975 Survey (After Chen, 1980)
The 1975 Survey (After Chen, 1980)

and from points which were at a distance of 600 km the survey was completed. When near me, they added up my height by going through me using third degree chains and traverse points. For this, they found out the horizontal distance and vertical angle from 13 km. Away and through the Electronic Distance Measurement method they. Thus, they made trigonometric survey, gravity survey from 20 points, atmospheric survey from 15 points were completed from camps constructed as high as 6,300 m.

To stay at this altitude just to measure the Deflection of Vertical was indeed very admirable. The survey done from summits as far as 8.5 km to 21.2 km was successful. Their ascension team which scaled me put up a flag made from a mixture of different metals, which stood on three 3.5 m. long legs, wrapped up in cords and painted in red, on my apex. In spite of strong winds and heavy snowfall, it remained intact for 3 years. This team also measured the 0.92 m level of snow on my crest. To find out how the angles and distance measurements are affected by atmospheric variation, they took the temperature arc of different places. The middle portion was measured
    Balloon Flight
Balloon Flight

with the help of a balloon.Through this survey the accurate angles, geodes and quasi - geodes were discovered and the correct evaluation calculated. Finally, in 1975, my height was officially declared as 8,848.113+0.35m (29,029+1.1 ft). This height was accurate as every kind of improvement was implemented and the mistakes were countable. The main reason was impeccable work done by the survey team. Their brave and hard work really is praise worthy. The amazing thing is that this height and the height given to me in 1954 were one and the same. In 1987, after a long time, some interesting news about me came to light. In March of the same year, Prof. Wallerstein, an atmospheric scholar of the Washington University and a mountaineer himself, measured the height of MOUNT K2 and me with the help of satellites. His survey came to the result that Mt K2 was 11m taller than me. This news was also published in the 20-10- 1989 edition of 'The New York Times'; '06-11-1989' edition of 'THE Rising Nepal' and also in the 2-11-1989 edition of 'TIME ' magazine. As this survey had been done only once and on top of all with a weak battery, it was not taken as correct. For the refutation of this, Italy's Prof. Ardite Desio, from the Milan University, started his own survey. In August 1987, he proved Wallerstein's statement wrong by using two GPS receivers which measured our individual heights from a distance of 1300 km. He fixed my height at 8,872m and Mt K2 's at 8,615m. Respectively, which proved that I was 256 m taller.
Sagarmatha - Mt.Everest
Sagarmatha- Mt.Everest
    

In this way, it was proved that the earlier American Geological Survey had been correct in their assumption of calling me the taller one between us. Eventhough, the people acknowledged me as the tallest

mountain, they were still not sure about my exact height. The reasons for this doubt were: the surface's geodetic points had not been joined and the local Geoid had not been calculated. Because of all these reasons and for various other scientific studies and researches, RONAST (Royal Nepal Science and Technology) and Italy's National Research Council came to an agreement in September 1989 whereby they would study the Himalayan Ranges unitedly. A news item revealed that the Italian team would perform various experiments to prove Prof. Desio's claim. Firstly, they built a triangular shaped house in Nobuchhe and fixed it up with all kinds of scientific instruments. RONAST disclosed that they would study the climate, geology, environment as well as the speed of increment in the Himalayan's height. But on 22 April 1993, a very surprising news was published in 'The Kathmandu Post' - a press release published in Geneva reported by Prof. A. Desio claiming that the height of Sagarmatha was shorter 2.06 m (88,846 m) than before and that this survey was done with the same GPS satellites using the latest technology and hence was devoid of mistakes present in the previous survey. The only thing that did not satisfy me was that the vertical deflection of some places had been calculated without the local Geoid.The sea -level was also not taken from a nearby area, but from satellite survey. My height was calculated through a detailed and expansive process from the north, and until and unless nearby regulation points are not taken and all kinds of aerial data are not calculated, my correct height will never be assessed from the south side. Another thing is that the height of the Indian Ocean and the Yellow Sea should be added and compared with me from a near distance only then a correct assessment of my Height can be done from the south side.

In 27 th Kartik 2056 edition of "The Kantipur Daily", another surprising item was published. According to an article published by the associated press, Washington it was discovered that the height of Sagarmatha was actually 2 m more On hearing this, I did not whether to laugh or cry, as an article published in "The Kathmandu Post" had according to the GPS method, listed the height of Sagarmatha as 8,846m.Similarly, the news published in "The Kantipur Daily" had also been based on the GPS method. For the information of all my well wishers, I have listed below all the different measurements given to me over the years -

YEAR     NAME     HEIGHT
A.D.1852     XV     29002 ft (8840.07 m)
A.D.1907     SIR BURRAD     29144 ft (8883.36 m)
A.D.1922     DE GRAFF-HUNTER     29080 ft (8863.85 m)
A.D.1954     B.L GULATEE     29028 ft (8848.00 m)
A.D.1975     CHINESE SURVEY TEAM     8848.13 ± 0.35 m
A.D.1987     PROF. A. DESIO     8872 m
A.D.1993     PROF. A. DESIO     8846 m
A.D.1999     WASHBURN     8850 m

"89-year old Bradford Washburn, the director of the Millineam expedition who were the last team to ascend Sagarmatha in this century, published this measurement in the National Geographic Society. According to his Society's Cartographer Ellen Carol,"This is the most correct and accurate measurement of the world's highest point". But how can this be when the Daily Newspaper of Nepal reported ' the Survey Department of Nepal is still unsure about Sagarmatha's new height". If it wants to know my correct height than it has to calculate my height based on high resulution geoid.

It has been reported that even this new method based on the Earth satellites is not accurate and that there is usually a difference of 2m. According to the American scientist Prof.Roger Bilham, the accuracy and depth of the snow level as well as the geoid have not been mentioned in the latest publication on my height.

To dishonor me through foreigners who give different and contrasting heights to me is very unfair. It has become a necessity to make a law to forbid all random claims on my height. Until a through and detailed study is not completed, people have to consider my height as 8,848 m. keeping
    Sagarmatha - Mt.Everest
Sagarmatha- Mt.Everest

Lord Shiva, who resides on my head, as a witness I would like to ask from all those who want to study and research on me not to make any random judgements. The work of one team should always be cross-checked by another team; nothing should be done without a legal permit; and until there is no true fact people should not resort to false propaganda. The news of my height should not vary on a daily basis. The work of one country should not be baselessly refuted by another country, thus causing embarrassment to me. False stories should not be published. This is my pray to all of you, I think I can do nothing besides asking, can I ?

 

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